If You Don’t Believe The Earth Is Flat

If you believe in the Heliocentric model ass we were all taught, then you believe in a religion… not science. Below is a paper that was accepted for publication by the European Journal of Physics in January 2013. Luka Popov is the author and the title is, “Newtonian–Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, 383-391 (2013).  Also available at arXiv:1301.6045 [physics.class-ph].

The discussion of motion of celestial bodies is one of the most interesting episodes in the history of science. There are two diametrically opposite schools of thought: one that assumes that the Sun stands still, and Earth and other planets orbit around it; and another that assumes that the Earth stands still, and Sun and other planets in some manner orbit around the Earth. The first school of thought comes from Aristarchus (310-230BC) and is generally addressed as heliocentrism, another from Ptolemy (90-168 BC) and is generally known as geocentrism. Since Aristotle, the
ultimate authority in science for more than two millennia, accepted the geocentric assumption, it became dominant viewpoint among scientists of the time. The turnover came with Copernicus (so-called “Copernican revolution”) who in his work De Revolutionibus proposed a hypothesis that the Sun stands in the middle of the known Universe, and that Earth orbits around it, together with other planets. Copernicus’ system was merely better than Ptolemy’s, because Copernicus assumed the trajectories of the planets are perfect circles, and required the same number of
epicycles (sometimes even more) as Ptolemy’s model.
The analysis of planetary motions has been performed in the Newtonian framework with the assumption of Mach’s principle. The kinematical equivalence of the Copernican (heliocentric) and the Neo-tychonian (geocentric) systems is shown to be a consequence of the presence of a pseudo-potential (4.4) in the geocentric system, which, according to Mach, must be regarded as the real potential originating from the fact of the simultaneous acceleration of the Universe. This analysis can be done on any other celestial body observed from the Earth. Since Sun and Mars are chosen arbitrarily, and there is nothing special about Mars, one can expect to come up with the same general conclusion. There is another interesting remark that follows from this analysis. If
one could put the whole Universe in accelerated motion around the Earth, the pseudo-potential corresponding to the pseudo-force (4.2) will immediately be generated. That same pseudo-potential then causes the Universe to stay in that very state of motion, without any need of exterior forces acting on it. The entire paper follows.